Fermentation techniques can be simply defined as the fermentation process and its application. Fermentation should not be seen as a complete process
focus on what happens in the fermentor. There are many activities that happen upstream leads to reactions occurring in bioreactors or fermentors.
Fermentation technology is the entire research area involved in research, control and optimized fermentation process including upstream activities, midstream and downstream or post-fermenting activity.
Fermentors are considered to be the core of the fermentation process.
The function of the fermentor is to provide a appropriate environment, so the organism can quickly produce the products such as cellular biomass, metabolites and biotrans formation products, etc. It must be designed to provide the best environment which can give support for microbial biotrans. The design and operation of the fermentor rely on the production of the organism, optimal operating conditions, product value and scale required for the formation of the target product produce. The choice of microbes is varied for fermentation research. bacteria, single cell fungi, viruses, algae cells have been cultured in a fermentor. Now more and more try to cultivate individual plants and animal cells in a fermentor.
It is very important to know the type of physical and physiological characteristics which we use in the fermentation. Before the container is designed, the fermentation vessel must meet certain requirements which will make sure the occurring fermentation process. Some active parameters is: ventilation rate, cooling rate, and nutrients feed speed, acid or alkali valve. Precise environmental control is quite interesting fermentation, because oscillation may reduce system efficiency and increase plasmid instability and produce undesirable end Fermenter.